我此前已经在老轨的带领下对分油机的原理进行了复习(现场拆解后进行讲解,可惜照片没拍),现在我将以说明书为基准,从头至尾进行翻译学习,补充自己的不足,充分掌握说明书中的内容是一个优秀(摸鱼)轮机员必备的素养(方便摸鱼)

1 Safety Instructions (安全说明)

Important -read this!
The centrifugal separator includes parts that rotate at very high speeds, generating huge forces.
It is therefore essential for the safe operation of this separator system that you read and understand this manual, including the warning signs and safety precautions presented in this manual.
Failure to do so may cause a fatal accident.
重要-必读!这台离心式分油机内具有高速旋转的部件,从而产生巨大的力。
因此,您必须阅读并理解本手册,包括本手册中提供的警告标志和安全预防措施,对于安全操作分离器系统至关重要。
否则可能会导致致命事故。

ps:这段主要是让我们提高警惕,毕竟分油机的转速有12000转,加上重力加速度,这个力道打在人身上非死即残!

1.1 Key Factors for Safe Operation (保证操作安全的关键点)

The separation system is designed and supplied for a specific function (type of liquid, rotational speed, temperature, density, etc.).
The system must be used for this function only, and strictly within Alfa Laval 's specifications.
Incorrect operation or maintenance may result in a heavy unbalance, reduction of material strength, etc. that could lead to serious breakdown with fatal injury or damage to property.
For safe operation, strictly follow the instructions for installation, operation and maintenance in this manual.
这套分离系统是为特定功能(如液体,转速,温度,密度等)设计和提供的。
该系统必须仅用于此功能,并且严格在阿法拉伐的规格范围内。 错误的操作或维护可能会导致严重的不平衡,降低材料强度等,从而导致严重的故障并造成致命的伤害或财产损失。
为了安全操作,请严格遵守本手册中的安装,操作和维护说明。

The following is compulsory for safe operation:

  1. Never start up a separator before the bowl is completely assembled, and all fastenings securely tightened.
  2. Never discharge a vibrating separator. Always stop with the emergency stop button.
  3. Never begin to disassemble a separator before it has come to a complete standstill.
  4. Always set the discharge intervals according to instructions in the instruction book.
  5. Never ignore alarms. Always eliminate the cause before resuming operation.
  6. Never use the separator for other liquids than those specified by Alfa Laval.
  7. Never operate a separator with a different power supply frequency than stated on the machine plate.
  8. Clean the operating system regularly to avoid sludge discharge malfunction.
  9. Ensure that personnel are fully trained and competent in installation, operation, maintenance, and emergency procedures.
  10. Use only Alfa Laval genuine spare parts and the special tools supplied.

为了安全操作,以下是必不可少的:

  1. 完全组装好上盖之前,切勿启动分油机,并牢牢拧紧所有紧固件。
  2. 切勿拆卸震动中的分油机。务必使用紧急停止按钮停止。
  3. 切勿在完全停止之前开始拆卸。
  4. 始终按照说明手册中的说明设置排渣时间。
  5. 永远不要忽略警报。在复位之前,请务必消除故障点。
  6. 切勿将分油机用于除阿法拉伐指定的液体以外的其他液体。
  7. 切勿以与机器铭牌上规定的频率不同的电源频率运行分油机。
  8. 定期清洁操作系统,以避免排渣故障。
  9. 确保对人员进行充分的培训,并具备安装,操作,维护和紧急程序的能力。
  10. 仅使用阿法拉伐的原厂备件和随附的专用工具。
  • ps:这段是对设备安全的提示,其中我认为第十条最重要,因为在拆解清洁过程中不使用专用工具造成的暴力拆解,对设备的损伤是非常大,损设备也不利己。对于自己日后的维修保养也会造成很大的被动。

1.2 Warning Sign Definitions (警告标志定义)

Below are definitions of the warning signs used.

以下是所使用警告标志的定义。

  • Danger – serious injury or death(危险–重伤或死亡)
    This type of safety sign or instruction indicates an imminently hazardous situation which, if not avoided, will result in death or serious injury.

    这种安全标志或说明表示迫在眉睫的危险情况,如果不避免,将导致死亡或重伤

    Example(例):

    1.2-01

    Entrapment hazard(夹带危险)
    Make sure that rotating parts have come to a complete standstill before starting any dismantling work.

    在开始任何拆卸工作之前,请确保旋转部件完全停止转动。

  • Warning – serious injury or death(警告–重伤或死亡)
    This type of safety sign or instruction indicates a potentially hazardous situation which, if not avoided, could result in death or serious injury.

    此类安全标志或说明表示潜在的危险情况,如果不避免,可能会导致死亡或严重伤害

    Example(例):

    1.2-02

    Disintegration hazard (解体危险)
    If unusually strong vibration occurs, press the Emergency Stop button and leave the room. Do not enter the room after an emergency stop while the separator is still rotating.

    如果发生异常强烈的振动,请按紧急停止按钮并离开房间。在紧急停止后而分油机仍在旋转时,请勿进入房间。

  • Caution – minor or moderate injury (注意–轻度或中度伤害)

    This type of safety sign or instruction indicates a situation which, if not avoided, could result in minor or moderate injury.

    ‘CAUTION’ used without the safety alert symbol indicates a potentially hazardous situation which, if not avoided, could result in equipment damage.

    此类安全标志或说明表示一种情况,如果不避免,可能会导致轻度或中度伤害

    不带安全警告符号的“注意”表示潜在的危险情况,如果不避免,可能会导致设备损坏

    Example(例):

    1.2-03

    Burn hazard (烧伤危险)
    Various machine surfaces can be hot and cause burns.

    各种机器表面都可能很热并引起灼伤。

PS: 国外的设备说明书对于安全风险这部分确实做的比国内的好,它将危险等级分类,工程师可以对所处环境的风险有一个大概认知,从而提高警惕,减少风险及伤害。

1.3 Summary of Safety Hazards(安全隐患摘要)

Below follows a selection of the warnings which have been used in the text of this instruction manual to ensure safe installation, start-up,operation, stop, and maintenance. Further warnings are to be found in the appropriate places throughout the manual.

为确保安全安装,启动,操作,停止和维护,在本说明手册的文本中选择了以下警告。在整本手册的适当位置可以找到进一步的警告。

Start-up(启动)

Check that the separator is correctly assembled and connected to power supply of correct voltage and frequency. The control panel must be ON.
Be specially observant during start-up. If there is any abnormal vibration, immediately stop the separator and investigate the cause. Clean the bowl if it contains sediment.

检查隔板是否正确组装,并连接到电压和频率正确的电源。控制面板必须打开。

在启动过程中要特别注意。如果有异常振动,请立即停止分油机并调查原因。如果盛有沉淀物,请清洁。

Breakdown hazard(机损危险)

Assemble the separator completely before start. All couplings, covers, and guards must be in place and properly tightened. Failure to do so may lead to breakdown.
开始之前,请完全组装隔板。所有联轴器,外盖和防护罩必须安装到位并正确拧紧。否则可能会导致故障。

Electrical hazard(电击危险)

请遵守当地有关电气安装和接地(接地)的规定。

Breakdown hazard(机损危险)

Check that the power frequency is in agreement with the machine plate. If incorrect, resulting overspeed may cause breakdown.
检查电源频率是否与设备铭牌标注的一致。如果不正确,则可能导致超速、机损。

Use the separation system for the purpose, and within the limits, specified by Alfa Laval. Failure to do so could cause a violent breakdown.
请在阿法拉伐指定的范围内使用此分离系统。否则可能会导致严重故障。

If power cable polarity has been reversed, the separator will rotate in reverse, and vital rotating parts can loosen.
如果电源线极性接反,则分油机将反向旋转,并且重要的旋转部件可能会松动。

Check the oil level before start. Top up when necessary. Do not overfill.
启动前检查油位。必要时充值。不要过量填充。

Excessive vibration(过度振动)

​ If vibration increases, or continues at full speed,keep bowl filled and stop the separator.

​ The cause of the vibration must be determined and corrected before starting again!

​ Excessive vibration may be due to incorrect assembly or insufficient cleaning of the bowl.

​ 如果振动增加或以全速持续,请保持盛满碗并停止分离器。

​ 在重新开始之前,必须确定并纠正振动原因!

​ 过度的振动可能是由于组装不正确或分离桶未清洁干净而引起的。

Breakdown hazard(机损危险)

If strong vibration occurs, press the emergency stop button and evacuate the room. Never discharge a vibrating separator. Vibration may then become violent and result in breakdown.
如果发生强烈振动,请按下紧急停止按钮并撤离房间。
切勿拆卸振动中的分油机。
振动可能随后变得剧烈并导致故障。

Disintegration hazard(解体危险)

​ After an emergency stop, the cause of the fault must be identified. ​ If all parts have been checked and the cause not found, contact Alfa Laval for advice before restarting the separator.

​ 紧急停止后,必须确定故障原因。
​ 如果已经检查了所有零件并且没有找到原因,请在重新启动分离器之前联系阿法拉伐寻求建议。

Burning hazard(烫伤危险)

​ 润滑油和各种机器表面可能会变热并引起灼伤。

Noise hazard(噪音危害)

​ Use ear protection if noise levels are high.

​ 如果噪音水平高,请使用耳罩。

Breakdown hazard(机损危险)

​ Never reset an alarm without first finding and remedying the cause.

​ 在未找到并纠正原因之前,切勿重置警报。

Disintegration hazard(解体危险)

​ Do not discharge a vibrating separator. Vibration can increase if solidified sludge is only partially discharged.

​ 请勿拆卸振动中的分油机。排渣的时候分油机振动会增大。

Burn hazard(烧伤危险)

Avoid contact with hot surfaces.
Process pipes,various machine surfaces, and processed liquid can be hot and cause burns.
避免接触热表面。处理管道,各种机器表面和处理过的液体可能很热并引起灼伤。

Slip hazard(滑倒危险)

​ Check all connections for leakage.Oil leakage may make the floor slippery.

​ 检查所有连接是否泄漏。漏油可能会使地板打滑。

If speed or starting power is not correct(如果速度或启动功率不正确):

Stop and change the belt transmission to suit the power supply frequency.
停止并更改皮带传动以适应电源频率。

Stop(停止)

Breakdown hazard(机损危险)

​ Stop the separator by means of the control unit, and not by turning off the motor.
​ Never attempt to clean the bowl by manual discharge in connection with stop.

​ 通过控制单元而不是通过关闭电动机来停止分油机。切勿尝试通过带有停止的手动排渣来清洁分离桶。

Emergency stop(应急停止)

Disintegration hazard(解体危险)

If unusually strong vibration occurs, press the Emergency Stop button and leave the room. Do not enter the room after an emergency stop while the separator is still rotating.
如果发生强烈振动,请按下紧急停止按钮并撤离房间。
在紧急停止后而分油机仍在旋转时,请勿进入房间。

Disintegration hazard(解体危险)

Do not start the separator after an emergency stop without first remedying the cause of the emergency.
Make sure that the bowl is clean before restart.

紧急停止后,请首先启动隔离器,然后再立即解决紧急原因。
重新启动之前,请确保分离桶是干净的。

After emergency stop(应急停止后)

Entrapment hazard(夹带危险)

Make sure that rotating parts have come to a complete standstill before starting any dismantling work. The rotation indicator lamp, where applicable, must be off.
在开始任何拆卸工作之前,请确保旋转部件完全停止转动。如果适用,旋转指示灯必须熄灭。

Entrapment hazard(夹带危险)


​ To avoid accidental start, switch off and lock powersupply before starting any dismantling work.
​ Make sure that separator has come to a complete standstill before starting any dismantling work

​ 为避免意外启动,在开始任何拆卸工作之前,请关闭电源并锁定电源。
​ 在开始任何拆卸工作之前,请确保完全停止运转

Disintegration hazard(解体危险)

Do not start the separator after an emergency stop without first remedying the cause of the emergency. Make sure that the bowl is clean before restart.

紧急停止后,请首先启动隔离器,然后再立即解决紧急原因。
重新启动之前,请确保分离桶是干净的。

Maintenance (维护保养)

Entrapment hazard(夹带危险)

Make sure that rotating parts have come to a complete standstill before starting any dismantling work. The rotation indicator lamp, where applicable, must be off.
在开始任何拆卸工作之前,请确保旋转部件完全停止转动。如果适用,旋转指示灯必须熄灭。

Disintegration hazard(解体危险)

Separator parts that are either missing, worn beyond their safe limits or incorrectly assembled,may cause severe damage or fatal injury.

缺少的分油机零件,磨损超出安全极限或组装不正确的分离器零件可能会导致严重损坏或致命伤害。

Burn and Corrode Hazards(烧伤和腐蚀危险)

Escaping hot and/or corroding process material, which can be hazardous, may still remain in the separator after stop.

逸出的热和/或腐蚀工艺材料可能会很危险,在停止后仍可能保留在分油机中。

Disintegration hazard(解体危险)

Use of imitation spare parts may cause severe damage.

使用仿制备件可能会造成严重损坏。

Entrapment hazard(夹带危险)


To avoid accidental start, switch off and lock power supply before starting any dismantling work.
Make sure that the separator has come to a complete standstill before starting any dismantling work.
为避免意外启动,在开始任何拆卸工作之前,请关闭电源并锁定电源。
在开始任何拆卸工作之前,请确保完全停止。

The nut must not be removed before the separator has stopped.
分油机停止前切勿卸下螺母

Crush hazard(挤压危险)

The top disc can adhere to the bowl hood when lifting. Be careful not to accidentally drop it.

提起时,顶部圆盘可能粘附在上盖上。注意不要意外掉落它。

Risk for eye injury from flying seal ring parts
The seal ring breaks when removed from the bowl hood.
飞出的密封环零件可能导致眼睛受伤
从颈盖上取下时,密封圈破裂。

Crush hazard(挤压危险)

The distributor and disc stack can adhere to the top disc. Separate them from the top disc so that they do not accidentally drop.

分配器和分离片可能粘附在顶部分离片上。将它们与顶部分离片分开,以免它们意外掉落。

Cut hazard(割伤危险)

Sharp edges on the separator discs may cause cuts

分离片上的锋利边缘可能会导致割伤

Crush hazard(挤压危险)

The ring on the lifting tool must be pushed down against the discharge slide, otherwise the discharge slide may come loose from the tool.

必须将提升工具上的环向下压靠在拆卸滑板上,否则拆卸滑板可能会从工具上脱落。

Crush hazard(挤压危险)

Support the bowl body when turning to prevent it from rolling.

旋转时支撑分离桶以防止其滚动。

Crush hazard(挤压危险)

The motor will come off if the screws are unscrewed.

如果拧下螺丝,电机将脱落

Crush hazard(挤压危险)

Do not rotate the spindle assembly during lifting. The spindle assembly may otherwise come loose from the lifting tool.

抬起过程中请勿旋转主轴组件。否则,主轴组件可能会从提升工具上松脱。

Risk for eye injury from flying snap ring
Use the correct pliers for dismantling of snap ring to avoid accidental release.
飞行的卡环可能会伤害眼睛 使用正确的钳子拆卸卡环,以避免意外弹出。

Crush hazard(挤压危险)

If not supported, the motor with coupling will drop
when removing the screws.

如果没有支撑,卸下螺丝时带联轴器的电动机将掉落。

Electrical hazard(触电危险)

If the cables are not disconnected during lifting procedures, they may become damaged.

如果在提升过程中未断开电缆连接,则可能会损坏它们。

Inhalation hazard(吸入危害)

When handling friction blocks/pads wear a mask to avoid inhalation of dust.
DO NOT USE COMPRESSED AIR TO REMOVEDUST. Remove dust using vacuum or a damp cloth.

处理摩擦块/衬块时,请戴口罩,避免吸入灰尘。
请勿使用压缩空气进行除尘。使用真空或湿布清除灰尘。

Crush hazard(挤压危险)

The centrifugal clutch is heavy and can fall, causing injury, when loosened from the motor shaft.

从主轴上拆下时,分离桶很重,可能会掉落并造成伤害。

Electrical hazard(触电危险)

Never wash down a separator with a direct water stream.
Never play a water jet on the motor. Totally enclosed motors can be damaged by direct hosing to the same extent as open motors, resulting in shortcircuit and internal corrosion.

切勿用直接水流冲洗分油机。
切勿在电机上喷水。完全封闭的电动机很大程度上会因此导致短路和内部腐蚀。

Disintegration hazard(解体危险)

Always contact your Alfa Laval representative if you suspect that the depth of the corrosion damage exceeds 0.5 mm (0.2 mm for bowl body and bowl hood) or if cracks have been found. Do not continue to use the separator until it has been inspected and given clearance for operation by Alfa Laval.
如果您怀疑腐蚀损坏的深度超过0.5毫米(本体和压盖为0.2毫米),或者发现裂纹,请始终与您的阿法拉伐代表联系。在经过隔膜检查并获得阿法拉伐(Alfa Laval)的许可后,再继续使用

Disintegration hazard(解体危险)

Pits and spots forming a line may indicate cracks beneath the surface.
All forms of cracks are a potential danger and are totally unacceptable.
Replace any part where corrosion can be suspected of affecting its strength or function.

形成线条的凹坑和斑点可能表明表面下方有裂纹。
所有形式的裂纹都是潜在的危险,是完全不可接受的。
更换怀疑会腐蚀其强度或功能的部件。

Disintegration hazard(解体危险)

All forms of cracks are potentially dangerous as they reduce the strength and functional ability of components.
Always replace a part if cracks are present.

所有形式的裂纹都有潜在的危险,因为它们会降低组件的强度和功能。
如果有裂缝,请务必更换零件。

Disintegration hazard(解体危险)

Erosion damage weakens parts by reducing the thickness of the material.
Pay special attention to the pillars between the sludge ports in the bowl wall.
Replace parts if erosion is suspected of affecting strength or function.

腐蚀损伤通过减小材料的厚度来削弱零件。
特别注意碗壁上污泥孔之间的支柱。
如果怀疑腐蚀会影响强度或功能,请更换零件。

Disintegration hazard(解体危险)

If the belt pulley must be renewed, check that the new pulley has the correct diameter. An incorrect pulley will cause the separator bowl to run at either an excessive or insufficient speed.

如果必须更换皮带轮,请检查新皮带轮的直径是否正确。错误的皮带轮会导致分离桶以过大或不足的速度运行。

Burn hazard(烧伤危险)

Use protective gloves when handling any heated parts.

处理任何加热的部件时,请戴防护手套。

Risk for eye injury from flying snap ring
Use the correct pliers for dismantling of snap ring to avoid accidental release.
飞行的卡环可能会伤害眼睛 使用正确的钳子拆卸卡环,以避免意外弹出。

Cut hazard(割伤危险)

Do not put fingers between the frame and air deflector while lowering the assembly.

降低组件时,请勿将手指放在框架和导流板之间。

Disintegration hazard(解体危险))

Impact marks may cause the separator to vibrate while running.

撞击痕迹可能会导致分离器在运行时振动。

Crush hazard(挤压危险)

The ring on the lifting tool must be pushed home against the discharge slide, otherwise it may come loose from the tool

必须将起重工具上的环推回到排出滑块上,否则可能会从工具上松脱

The number of discs may have to be increased to adjust the disc stack pressure. Always check before operating the separator.
可能需要增加分离片的数量才能调整其叠堆压力。操作分油机之前,请务必进行检查。

Crush hazard(挤压危险)

A falling separator can cause accidents resulting in serious injury and damage.
Never lift the separator by any other method than described in this manual.

分离桶掉落会导致事故,导致严重的人身伤害和财产损失。
除本手册中描述的方法外,切勿以其他任何方式提起分离桶。

Crush hazard(挤压危险)

使用正确的起重工具并遵循起重说明。

Disintegration hazard(解体危险)

Separator parts that are either missing, worn beyond their safe limits, or incorrectly assembled, may cause severe damage or fatal injury.
分离器部件丢失或磨损超出其安全极限或组装不正确,可能会造成严重损坏或致命伤害。

Disintegration hazard(解体危险)

Do not weld nor heat parts that are subject to highspeed rotation.
请勿焊接或加热易受热高速旋转的零件。

Separator reassembled(分油机重新组装)

Breakdown hazard(机损危险)

Assemble the separator completely before start.
All couplings, covers, and guards must be in place and properly tightened. Failure to do so may lead to breakdown.
开始之前,请完全组装隔板。所有联轴器,外盖和防护罩必须安装到位并正确拧紧。否则可能会导致故障。

Cleaning in place(本地清洁)

Health Risk(健康风险)

Do not forget to disconnect the CIP equipment and re-connect connections.

不要忘记断开CIP设备并重新连接。

Use only Alfa Laval recommended CIP liquids.
仅使用阿法拉伐推荐的CIP液体(PS:Clean In Place简称CIP,管路冲洗的一种方法,这里要求用专用清洗液)

1.4 Optional Heaters

1.4.1 CBM heaters

Burn hazard(烧伤危险)

The heater must not be used without the insulated protection cover. This shields the hot surfaces and also acts as a safety cover in the unlikely event of leakage.

如果没有绝缘保护罩,则不得使用加热器。这样可以屏蔽热的表面,并在发生不太可能的泄漏的情况下充当安全盖。

Burn hazard(烧伤危险)

To prevent pressure or heat shocks in the system, adjustment of the flow rate must be carried out slowly. The heater can otherwise be damaged.

为防止系统受到压力或热冲击,必须缓慢进行流量调节。否则会损坏加热器。

Burn hazard(烧伤危险)

Shut off the oil flow and the heating medium flow before starting maintenance.

在开始维护之前,请关闭油路阀门和加热管路阀门。

Corrosion Hazard(腐蚀危险)

Pay strict attention to the safety instructions for the cleaning liquid used.

请严格遵守所用清洁液的安全说明。

Burn hazard(烧伤危险)

Make sure that the relief valve outlet leads into a collecting tank or below floor level.

确保安全阀出口通向集水箱或在地面以下。

1.4.2 Electric heaters

Electrocution Risk(触电危险)

Switch off the main power before opening the heater junction box, or dismantling the heater.

打开加热器接线盒或拆卸加热器之前,请先关闭主电源。

It is very important that the correct heater element is minstalled.
安装正确的加热器元件非常重要。